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CAUSES OF FLOODING AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE PEOPLE ON NORTHERN CROSS RIVER STATE (A CASE STUDY OF IKOM METROPOLIS)

CAUSES OF FLOODING AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE PEOPLE ON NORTHERN CROSS RIVER STATE (A CASE STUDY OF IKOM METROPOLIS)

 

ABSTRACT 

 

This project is the overview of the causes of flooding and its effects on the people of Northern Cross-River State. (A Case Study of Ikom Metropolis) the study was carried out to investigate the causes of flooding and its effect on the people of Ikom Metropolis and also analyze the flood control strategies so as to reduce the incidences in Ikom.  Chapter one discussed much of the properties damaged from natural disasters in Ikom Urban  Area as caused by floods and some of the major  environmental problems being caused by flooding such as direct inundation, land sliding, damaging of properties and household effects.  The literature reviews the origin and history of floods and also some causes and types of floods that exist as well as the effect of flooding in the environment.  The research designed and methodology reveals the population of study, the study area, sampling procedures, research designed as  well  as data analysis procedures, where the research make use of frequency distribution table for the analysis. The data presentation, analysis and interpretation of result are deliberated in chapter four.  Discussion, conclusion and recommendation are discussed properly in chapter five. Conclusively, this project work was carried out to help the people living in flood-plain and some of the recommendations were drawn down, that if they are strictly implemented, some of the problems caused by flooding will be minimized.

 

CHAPTER ONE 

1.0Introduction

Flood can be referred to as a body of water that covers normally dry land. Flood were common long ago before human appeared. Even today: Most floods are independents out of influence and result from heavy run off due to intensive or persistence of rain, rapid melting of snow or destruction of vegetative covered by lightening induced fires. But human have contribute to the problem by ill conceived practices in lumbering, agriculture and industry.

Most floods are harmful, the physical hazards involve in Flood induce direct inundation, caring from river banks landslides or degradation, erosion of new channels, debris and mid flows and deposition of sediments.

Inundation may also result in loss of human life’s and destroy homes and household. Floods inundate vast tracts of cropped areas by carrying off the top soil, living the land barren, and bring epidemics like cholera and typhoid in the affected area carrying the banks, along flood plain channel undermines building, roads and others structures. Land slides in steep mountains, valley results from accelerated river erosion particularly on the outside of curves. New channel are often eroded when flood waters out top channel banks. The flood channel may cross build-up areas, destroying and washing out roads, rail roads, and utility lines. 

Debris and mid flows result when flood waters, laden with sediments, Lose water through undergrounds seepage. The flow may full channels and spread over neighboring ground, penetrating and crushing building. However, floods only bring destruction, but some times the can be harmful. 

 

1.1Background of Study

The background of this study is to investigate the causes of flooding and its effects on the people of Ikom metropolis and also analyze flood control strategies so as to reduce the incidences in Ikom. 

 

1.2Statement of Problem

Much of the properties damaged from natural disasters in Ikom Urban area are cause by flood. This is due not to the frequency of floods, but the concentration of significant part of the population in the area susceptible to flooding. Some major environmental problems being caused by flooding include the following:

•Direct inundation (the overflowing or influx of water, especially over land):- This result in washing away habitation and losing of lives of people living in the area.

•Damaging of properties and household effect e.g. Automobile cattle’s and vegetations etc. 

•The flooding problem in Ikom metropolis brings epidemics like cholera, dysentery and typhoid etc. in the affected area. 

•Also, environmental problems like land sliding, erosion and deposition of sediments caused by flooding. Because of the above problems, the Ikom dwellers like the Yala, Nkam, Okum, Okonla Nkpans, Akam village and social development.

 

1.3Aims and Objectives 

The aim of this project is to investigate the cause and effects of flooding in Ikom Metropolis and also analyze the flood control strategies so as to reduce incidences in Ikom.


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