Loading ....


PREVALENCE AND PERCEIVED SOCIOECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ONCHOCERCIASIS DISEASE IN EBONYI STATE

PREVALENCE AND PERCEIVED SOCIOECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ONCHOCERCIASIS DISEASE IN EBONYI STATE

 

ABSTRACT

Despite the control programme mounted by African Programme on Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) in collaboration with Ebonyi State Government, the disease still persists. The main purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and perceived socio-economic effects of Onchocerciasis disease in Ebonyi State. In order to achieve this purpose, ten specific objectives and corresponding research questions were posed to guide the study. Seven hypotheses were also formulated to provide further guide for the study. The survey research design was used to carry out the study. The multi-stage sampling procedure was applied using structured questionnaire to elicit information from respondents aged 10 years and above. The results obtained showed an overall prevalence rate of 19.3%. That is out of every 100 persons 19 had one or more of the signs and symptoms of Onchocerciasis disease. Nodules 36.2% was the commonest sign and symptom of Onchocerciasis disease. The study also revealed that Onchocerciasis disease increases with age. Those aged 50 to 59 had the highest score of 43.6%. Females 64.7% contrary to most previous studies had more cases of the disease than the males 35.3%. Respondents who attained only primary level of education 53.4% or non-formal education 20.9% were prone to having Onchocerciasis disease. The occupation groups mostly affected by Onchocerciasis disease in Ebonyi State were hunters 35.2%, traders 27.0% and fishermen 17.8%. The results indicated that Onchocerciasis disease had negative socio-economic effects like feeling shy in public ( x = 3.69), ashamed in public places ( x = 3.81), affected self esteem ( x = 3.53), feeling of pity ( x = 3.61), people avoiding sufferers ( x = 3.46), giving up jobs ( x = 3.29), low income ( x = 2.81), loss of man hour ( x = 3.78) and economic loss as a result of buying protective clothing ( x = 3.27). Visual impairment and blindness as a result of Onchocerciasis disease were found from the study to affect productivity, the sufferers were found to be less useful to themselves and those blind due to Onchocerciasis disease needed a guide to ensure their movement. Onchocerciasis disease was discovered from the study to affect marriage prospects of victims just as 73.5% and 82.1% will not like to marry a person that is visually impaired or blind respectively due to Onchocerciasis disease. The study revealed that age, gender, level of education and occupation exerted a significant influence on the distribution pattern of Onchocerciasis disease. They also exerted significant influence on the socioeconomic effects as well as problems associated with visual impairment/blindness in Ebonyi State. It was recommended, among others, that health education should be intensified and targeted at encouraging preventive measures against the transmission of Onchocerciasis disease in Ebonyi State.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE i

APPROVAL PAGE ii

CERTIFICATION iii

DEDICATION iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v

ABSTRACT vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS vii

LIST OF TABLES xi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1

Background to the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 7

Purpose of the Study 8

Significance of the Study 9

Scope of the Study 11

Research Questions 11

Hypotheses 12

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 14

Conceptual Framework 14

Concept of Onchocerciasis 15

Prevalence of Onchocerciasis Disease 18

Socio-Economic Effects of Onchocerciasis Disease 22

Other Effects of Onchocerciasis Disease 25

Historical Perspective, Discovery and Complications of Onchocerciasis Disease 27

Onchocerciasis Disease: The Parasite and its Severity 32

Age and Onchocerciasis Disease 33

Gender and Onchocerciasis Disease 34

Level of Education and Onchocerciasis Disease 35

Occupation and Onchocerciasis Disease 36

Area of Residence and Onchocerciasis Disease 36

Marriage Prospects, Skin Appearance and Onchocerciasis Disease 37

Farmland Close to the River and Onchocerciasis Disease 38

Control Programmes put in place for Onchocerciasis Disease in the World 40

Theoretical Framework 44

Theories of Disease Causation/the Early and Sacred Theories of Disease 44

The Germ Theory of Disease 47

The Multi-Casual Models of Disease/Epidemiological Theory of Disease/ Web Causation of Disease 49

The Theory of General Susceptibility 50

Psychosocial Theory 51

Social Production Theory 52

Empirical Studies on Prevalence and Socioeconomic Effects

of Onchocerciasis Disease 55

Summary of Literature Review 69

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHOD 72

Research Design 72

Area of the Study 73

Population of the Study 74

Sample and Sampling Techniques 75

Instrument for Data Collection 76

Validation of the Instrument 78

Reliability of the Instrument 79

Method of Data Collection 79

Method of Data Analysis 80

 

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 82

Summary of Major Findings 112

 

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS

AND RECOMMENDATIONS 114

Discussion of Results 114

Prevalence of Onchocerciasis Disease 114

Prevalence of Onchocerciasis Disease in Relation to Age 115

Prevalence of Onchocerciasis Disease in Relation Gender 116

Prevalence of Onchocerciasis Disease in Relation Level of Education 117

Prevalence of Onchocerciasis Disease in Relation to Occupation 117

Perceived Socio-economic Effects 118

Problems Associated with Visual Impairment 120

Conclusions 121

Implications of the Study 123

Recommendations 124

Limitations of the Study 125

Suggestions for Further Research 125

REFERENCES 126

APPENDICES 141

A. Questionnaire 141

B. Organogram of Ebonyi State Onchocerciasis Control Programme 151

C. Distribution of People above 10 Years 152

D. Yaro Yamen Formula for Determining Sample Size 153

E. Reliability 154

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Prevalence Level of Onchocerciasis 82

Table 2: Number of People in Different Age Groups Affected by Onchocerciasis Disease in Ebonyi State 84

Table 3: Number of Males and Females Affected by Onchocerciasis Disease 85

Table 4: Number of People in Different Levels of Education Affected by Onchocerciasis Disease 86

Table 5: Number of People in Different Occupation Groups Affected by Onchocerciasis Disease 87

Table 6: Perceived Social Effects of Onchocerciasis Disease 88

Table 7: Perceived Economic Effects of Onchocerciasis Disease 89

Table 8: Problems Associated with Visual Impairment 90

Table 9: Onchocerciasis and Marriage Prospects in Ebonyi State 91

Table 10: Willingness to Pay for Drugs Should Donor Withdraw in Future 92

Table 11: General 93

Table 12: Summary of Chi-square Analysis Testing the Hypothesis of No Significant Difference in the Prevalence of Onchocerciasis according to Age 94

Table 13: Summary of Chi-square Analysis Testing the Hypothesis of No Significant Difference in the Prevalence of Onchocerciasis according to Gender 95

Table 14: Summary of Chi-square Analysis Testing the Hypothesis of No Significant Difference in the Prevalence of Onchocerciasis according to Level of Education 96

Table 15: Summary of Chi-square Analysis Testing the Hypothesis of No Significant Difference in the Prevalence of Onchocerciasis according to Occupation 97

ETC


NOTE: To have an access to Download this material please contact Us On
+234-903-685-7618, Any Time
Or Or Locate us at pam industrial estate Block 4 Makurdi, Benue State

Click here to make a payment Online or get Payment details