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EFFECT OF CONSTRUCTIVIST-BASED INSTRUCTIONAL MODEL ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY AND CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

EFFECT OF CONSTRUCTIVIST-BASED INSTRUCTIONAL MODEL ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY AND CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

 

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of constructivist based instructional model on students’ achievement in biology and critical thinking skills. The study was a quasi experimental study and was carried out in secondary schools in Awka Education Zone. Specifically, the pre-test, post-test non-equivalent control group design was used. The sample consisted of eighty (80) students from two randomly selected co-educational secondary schools. One of the two schools was assigned to the experimental condition and the other control condition. Two instruments known as Biology Achievement Test (BAT) with reliability coefficient of 0.81 and Critical Thinking Test (CTT) with a reliability coefficient of 0.72 were used to collect data for the study. These instruments were used as pretest and posttest for both experimental and control groups. Mean and Standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while ANCOVA was used to test the null hypotheses at P<0.05. The result revealed that the constructivist based instructional model had significant effect on students’ achievement in biology and critical thinking abilities. The finding implies that there is a need for biology teachers to use constructivist based instructional model in teaching biology in secondary schools. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that Constructivist Based Instructional Model (CBIM) should be adopted by biology teachers for teaching biological concepts to secondary school students. Also seminars, workshops and conferences should be organized for biology teachers on the use of Constructivist Based Instructional Model (CBIM) in teaching and learning. Finally, limitations of the study and suggestions for further studies were also proffered.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE I

APPROVAL PAGE II

CERTIFICATION III

DEDICATION IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS V

ABSTRACT VI

TABLE OF CONTENTS VII

LIST OF TABLES XII

LIST OF APPENDICES XIII

 

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

Background to the study 1

Statement of the problem 9

Purpose of the study 10

Significance of the study 11

Scope of the study 12

Research questions 13

Research Hypotheses 14 viii

 

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review

Conceptual Framework 15

The Concept of critical thinking 16

The Concept of Achievement 17

The Concept of Constructivism 18

Description on Constructivist Teaching Model (PEDDA) 22

Gender difference in Science 30

Theoretical Framework 31

Bruner’s Constructivist theory of learning 31

Vygotsky’s theory of Social Cognitive Development 32

Ausubel’s Subsumption Theory 34

Constructivist Learning Theory by Von Glasserfield 35

Jean Piaget Theory of Cognitive Development 37

Theoretical Studies 38

Biology in our Schools 38

Constructivist Teaching Method 41

Constructivism and Critical Thinking 42

Science and Critical Thinking 43

Gender and Science Achievement 45

Empirical Studies 49

Alternative Strategies for teaching critical thinking 51

Constructivist research on integrating everyday concept into scientific system 52

Research on constructivist base model on students’ conceptual change and retention in chemistry 53

Efficacy of constructivist base model on students’ conceptual change and retention in physics 53

Efficacy of constructivist approach in developing mathematics thinking skills among secondary school students 54

Other Research Findings 55

Gender in Science 58

Summary of literature review 60

 

CHAPTER THREE: Method

Research design 62

Area of the study 63

Population of the study 64

Sample & Sampling Technique 65

Instrument for data collection 66

Biology Achievement Test (BAT) 66

Critical Thinking Test 66

Validation of instrument 68

Reliability of instrument 69

Experimental Procedure 70

Training Programme for Research Assistant 70

Treatment 73

Control of Extraneous Variables 75

Experimental Bias 75

Teacher Variable 75

Variability of Instructional Situation 76

Effect of Pretest and Posttest 76

Method of data collection 77

Method of data Analyses 77

 

CHAPTER FOUR: Presentation and Analysis of Data

Research question 1 78

Research Question 2 79

Research Question 3 80

Research Question 4 80

Hypothesis I 82

Hypothesis 2 83

Hypothesis 3 83

Hypothesis 4 85

Summary of Major Findings 85 xi

 

CHAPTER FIVE: Discussions, Conclusion and Recommendations

Discussion of Major Findings 87

Conclusion 91

Educational Implications 92

Recommendations 92

Limitations of the Study 94

Suggestion for Further Study 94

Summary of the Study 95

References 97

Appendices 105 xii

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Summary of the Expository Teaching Method and Constructivist Teaching Approach 28

Table 2: The Design of the Study 63

Table 3: Sample distribution of subjects according to schools and Teaching methods 65

Table 4: The difference in the mean achievement scores between Secondary school students taught biology using PEDDA and those taught using Expository methods. 78

Table 5: Pre-test and Post test mean achievement scores of male and female students taught biology using PEDDA and those taught using Expository methods. 79

Table 6: Pre-test and Post test mean critical thinking scores of students taught biology using PEDDA and those taught using Expository methods. 80

Table 7: Pre-test and Post test mean critical thinking scores of male and female students taught biology using PEDDA and those taught using Expository methods. 81

Table 8: ANCOVA on the mean scores of biology students’ Achievement taught with PEDDA and those taught using Expository methods. 82

Table 9: ANCOVA on the mean critical thinking test scores Between the students’ taught with PEDDA and those taught using Expository methods. 84

 

LIST OF APPENDICES

A. Biology Achievement Test 105

B. Objective Answers on Biology Achievement Test 108

C. Critical Thinking test 109

D. Objective answers to critical thinking test 118

E. Lesson Plan on PEDDA 119

F. Lesson Plan on Expository Method 133

G. Table of Specification on BAT 146

H. Pearson Product Moment Correlation on Biology Achievement Test (BAT) 147

I. Kuder Richardson 21 148

J. Two Way Ancova For Achievement In Biology 150

K. Two Way Ancova for Critical Thinking Skills 152

L. Validtaors Comments 154


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