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CONSTRUCTION OF LOW COST SMOKE FIRE ALARM DETECTOR

ABTRACTS
The task at hand is to construct a low cost smoke fire alarm detector. The low cost fire alarm is a security device designed to protect both private and commercial resident when there is fire outbreak.
Two types of smoke fire alarm detector is discussed here they are ionization type and photoelectric. The ionization type reacts quicker to fuming fire while the photoelectric type reacts quicker to smoldering fire.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0. INTRODUCTION:
The low cost smoke alarm is a security device designed to protect both private and commercial resident when there is fire outbreak. The fire alarm system that provide medical alert services. Here a person with health problem who lives alone carries a radio transmitter that can trigger the system in case they need assistance; signals received at the monitoring station are identified by the type (fire, burglary, medical alert) so that the proper response can be made.
A feature of most monitoring services or fire alarm is ability to keep special information on the residence which comes up on the computer screen whenever the alarm is received from their home. Thus if there is a disabled person in the home who needs special assistance, this fact will be known to the operator and can be passed along to the fire department for rescue when they are called.
Consequently, the use of fire alarm widely reduced the huge yearly lose and damage of life and properties globally.
Basically, there are two types of fire smoke fire alarms available for home use. They are;
I. The ionization type which is the most simplest and most commonly used and is usually the least expensive one. This type reacts quicker to fuming fire.
II. Photo- Electric type reacts quicker to smoldering fire commercial photoelectric. Smoke alarm can also be used to cover large areas using point to point lasers. Other types of smoke detector which are widely used in business and public buildings are;
• Thermal type which is used to detect heat in the room
• Manual type has to be manually pulled to set off the alarm.
• Water flow type is activated when a fire sprinkler has started flowing.
• Interconnected type is one that interconnects all the smoke alarm in a building so that when one goes off, they all will go off.
• Hard wired control panel type is a type where smoke and heat sensors (and other fire sensors) that are connected to a central panel where any sensor will set off a facility alarm and be communicated to fire dispatchers.

1.1. DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM
Analysis statistically shows that over 45% citizens across the state level have been affected of fire to obtain remote monitoring services. This services becomes very important in cases where family members may not be capable of escaping from a fire or water flood without assistance, thus alarm alone might not be enough to assure their safety.
In construction of low cost fire alarm, the following deficiencies were discovered hence on type of smoke alarm can sense every kind of fire or smoke every time.
1. I discovered that alarm unit falls if the power is turned off or if the battery is dead.
2. Improperly location of alarm to avoid nuisance alarms
3. Alarm unit not function very well where detector guides are used.

1.2. REMEDY:
In attempt to ensure maximum protection and function of the alarm, it is better to use an ionization type that works from two completely different power sources such as an AC direct wire with battery backup smoke alarm that can give an extra measure of protection in case of an AC power failure or a dead battery.

1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT:
This project work is aimed at the following:
I. To seek better ways/methods of protecting life and properties.
II. To minimize burning of homes, industrial motors and vehicles caused by fire (smoke)
III. To ensure comfort of living/sleeping in homes and hospitals.

1.4. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT:
The scope of the project entices collecting the required materials, drawing the circuit diagram, construction, research work and write up. The following items were used in putting the unit together. Namely; fire alarm sensor, piezoelectric buzzer that produces the alarm sound, incandescent bulb or infrared led, collimate lens, photodiode, control panel and ionization chamber that is normally open to the air and a served reference chamber.

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