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CLONE AND INSTALLATION OF A CABLE TELEVISION SATELLITE SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

The main aim of this project work is to clone and install a cable television satellite system. The project was necessitated by the quest to produce a comparatively cheap free to air cable television satellite.
The cloning was done in two units which include the cloning of the satellite dish and the cloning of the receiver/decoder unit.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The most recent advancement in technology has really given birth to different development in the field of telecommunication engineering. Provisions have been made by technologist who covers a wide range of human’s environment giving solution to human’s problems.
In recent time, communication has been unstable in the world which has really affected consistent communication among the people of different countries. Many communication channels were found to be able to cover a certain area leaving majority of other area worth covering out. With the help of the present modern technology who brought about the use of satellite antenna have in a great way curtailed the problems of poor transmission and communication.
Specifically, we are considering a cable television satellite system. A cable television satellite or TV aerial is an antenna specifically designed for the reception of over the air broadcast television signals which are transmitted at frequencies from about 41MHz to 250MHz in the VHF band and 470MHz to 960MHz in the UHF band in different countries.
To cover this range, antennas generally consist of multiple conductors of different lengths which correspond to the wavelength range the antenna is intended to receive. The length of the element of a TV antenna is usually half the wavelength of the signal they are intended to receive. The wavelength of a signal equals the speed of light divided by the frequency.
The design of a television broadcast receiving antenna is the same for the older analog transmission and the digital television (DTV) transmission which are replacing them.
The cable television satellite system is parabolically shaped. It reflects the signal to the dish’s focal point. Mounted on brackets at the dish’s focal point is a device called feedhorn. This feedhorn is essentially the front end of a wave guide that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and conducts them to a low noise blockdown convert or LNB. The LNB converts the signals from electromagnetic or radio waves to electrical signal and shift the signal from the downlinked c-band and or ku- band to the L-band range.
Direct broadcast satellite dishes uses an LNBF which integrates the feedhorn with the LNB (a new form of omini- directional satellite) antennas which does not use a directed parabolic dish and can be used on a mobile platform such as a vehicle that was announced by the University of Waterloo in 2004.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
The history and discovery of an antenna system of transmission can be traced back to the first experiment conducted by Michael Faraday around 1830s which involved the coupling of electricity and magnetism.
He slide a magnetic material (a magnet actually) around the coil of a wire attached to a galvanometer. In doing so, he was actually creating a time varying magnetic field which as a result (from Maxwell’s equation) must have had a time varying electric field. The coil attached acted as a loop antenna and received the electromagnetic radiation which was detected by the galvanometer. The work of an antenna interestingly, the concept of electromagnetism has not been thought up at this point.
The first satellite television signal was relayed from Europe to the Telstar satellite over North America in 1962. It was based on the principle of using the highly elliptical Molniya satellite for pre- broadcasting and delivering of TV signal to ground downlink stations.
The first commercial North America satellite to carry television was Canada’s geostationary Anik which was launched in 1972. AT-6, the world’s first experimental educational and direct broadcast satellite was launched in 1974. The first Soviet geostationary satellite to carry direct to home television called “Ekran” was launched in 1976.
Satellite television is a program delivered by the means of communications satellite and received by an outdoor antenna, usually a parabolic reflector generally referred to as satellite dish and as far as household usage is concerned, and a satellite receiver either in the form of an external set- top box or a satellite tuner module built into a TV set. Satellite TV tuner are also available as a card or a USB peripheral to be attached to a personal computer. In many areas of the world, satellite television provides a wide range of channels and services often to areas that are not serviced by terrestrial or cable providers.
Direct- broadcast satellite television comes to the general public in two flavors- analog and digital. This necessitates either having an analog satellite receiver or a digital satellite receiver. Analog satellite television is being replaced by digital available in a better quality known as high definition television.

1.1. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
The following forms the problems that necessitated the research of this project work.
I. High cost of communication receiving equipment in the third world countries
II. The use of outdated and analog receiving satellite equipment which cannot receive all channels.
III. The invention and discovery gap between the whites and the blacks.

1.2. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:
The purpose of this study is aimed at cloning and installation of a cable television satellite system. It is necessitated by a quest to produce a comparatively cheap free to air antenna that can cover a wide distant and which can work as perfectly as the most recent antenna satellite in the market today.

1.3. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
Having researched the problem faced by the telecommunication receiving system engineers, the following forms the objective of this study:
I. Cloning a locally made cable television satellite using the “Ekran” launched in 1976 by the Soviet Union as a case study. I
I. Eliminating or atleast curtailing the communication gap between the “haves” and the “have not”. That is the rich and the poor.
III. Improving the antenna gain of other already produced antenna by encouraging its correction using this project work as a case study.
IV. To produce a free to air satellite that can easily be purchased by all.

1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
The cable television satellite system should be able to cover all the areas within the country or province where it is mounted.
It should also be able to cover both the VHF and UHF requirement and as well be able to receive foreign channels which are comparatively cheap as the original prototype or case study.

1.5. SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The focal point of this work is to clone and install a cable television satellite, highlighting its objective and operational characteristics.
The study covers only the receiving part of communication where antennas are used to intercept mobile frequency channels in the air. The type of antenna receiving system covered here is a parabolic antenna which is designed to receive microwaves from communication satellites which transmit or broadcast such as a satellite television.

1.6. BLOCK DIAGRAM:

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