METAL SCAVENGING AS A VERITABLE TOOL FOR INCOME GENERATION, WASTE REDUCTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN ANAMBRA STATE
The study investigated the contributions of metal scavenging to income generation, waste reduction and environmental protection in Anambra State. The study was based on the systems theory. The study design was a field survey consisting of direct observation, interviews, and daily recording of scrap metals recovered and sold by 220 scavengers for 10 months in Anambra State. The population of the study consisted of 483 scavengers and 53 scrap metal dealers identified in the study area, while the sample size comprised 220 scavengers and 30 scrap metal dealers, randomly selected. Three sets of structured questions were used to elicit information from scavengers, scrap metal dealers and 300 people living around dump sites, while 2 sets of questionnaire tapped information from 30 officers of Anambra State Waste Management Agency (ASWAMA) and 6 principal officers of 3 scrap metal recycling industries in Lagos. Data analysis was done using percentages, averages, charts, correlation analysis and Principal Components Analysis (PCA), while t-test, multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for testing hypotheses. The major findings of the study which were supported by five hypotheses were: 1. An average of between 1,711.3kg and 2,612.7kg of scrap metals was recovered monthly, while average monthly income realized ranged from N39, 359.50 to N62, 704.80 /scavenger. 2. A total of 4,845.23 metric tonnes of scrap metals was recovered in 10 months with an overall average of 2,204.18kg/scavenger/month. 3. An overall average monthly income of N53, 341.58 /scavenger was discovered. 4. A total of 484.523 metric tonnes of scrap metals, representing 2.44% of the total waste evacuated by ASWAMA, was recovered monthly by 220 scavengers in the study area. 5. Articulation of a predictive model for predicting the average monthly income of scavengers. 6. That t-test analysis on quantity of scrap metals recovered, produced the calculated t of 9.481 greater than the tabulated t of 2.090, thus confirming that the quantity of scrap metals recovered was significant in terms of the overall quantity of waste evacuated by ASWAMA. 7. That scavenging has been proved to be a means of income generation, waste reduction and environmental protection in Anambra State. 8. Articulation of a scavenging institutional activities model which shows at a glance the contributions of scavenging to the environment and economy. 9. That between 50 and 55% energy reduction and between 40 and 44% water reduction were achieved in using scrap metals in place of fresh metals from ores in recycling industries. 10.That an ANOVA result on integration of scavenging into the formal waste management system in Anambra State, produced a calculated f-ratio of 9.577 greater than the tabulated f-ratio of 2.650 and 11. Articulation of a new solid waste management model in Anambra State.
Policy implications based on the research findings are: 1. Siting of scrap metal recycling industries in Anambra State was advocated. 2. Organisation of seminars and workshops for scavengers to educate them on basic health practices like first aid, rudiments of business management and benefits of forming unions and co-operatives was proposed, among others.
1.1 Background of the study
Human effort in producing goods and services and utilizing same
for his satisfaction and convenience has resulted in the generation of
wastes of all types – liquid, solid and gaseous. Over the last few
decades, human beings have continuously exploited and degraded
their environment beyond limits, as a result of enormous technological
advancement, rapid urbanization and industrialization (Paul, 2002).
The economy of a country is fundamentally linked and largely
dependent on its environmental health, but policy-makers often
overlook that. Maintenance of the integrity of the nation’s environment
is essentially important for sustainable development.
In Anambra State, especially in urban centres, the way municipal
and industrial wastes are disposed of leaves much to be desired, as
much waste is generated and dumped indiscriminately into the
environment, due to the absence of effective waste management
programmes in those cities. The rate of solid waste generation has
greatly surpassed the rate of effective collection and disposal, hence,
large quantities of solid waste are accumulating in unauthorized areas.
It has reached the point that humans and natural ecosystems are
negatively impacted upon (Uchegbu, 2002; Okoye, 2004; Anyika,
2005; Onwurah et al, 2006; Okonkwo, 2009; Adewole, 2009).
Solution to solid waste problems must take into account the
technological, social, political and economic factors involved without
neglecting its generation. This implies that all sectors, both formal and
informal, must be involved and recognized in all aspects of solid waste
management. Over the years, governments have initiated policies and ...Get Complete Material.
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