THE INFLUENCE OF GENDER ROLES AND BIASES IN EDUCATION IN UKUM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BENUE STATE
This research report examined the influence of Gender roles and biases in education in Benue state, using Ukum local government as a case study. To enable the researcher do this effectively, she identified the problem and set research hypothesis to guide him in the course research.
The researcher went through many sources to effectively review of some relevant literature on the problem.
After identifying population characteristics, a simple data collected was then analyzed and many findings were made concerning gender roles and biases in education. Based on this, conclusions were drawn and recommendations made to which when properly implemented the gender biases in education will become a thing of the past.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
At the beginning, God created man and after realizing that he was lonely, he created a woman as his helper, this after thought of creating woman later has by implications made man superior to the woman, that is to say that there are differences between the two.
These differences in turn create stress and inequalities between them. According to Zasha “unless this fact is actively challenged and diligently resisted, the nation gains second class citizens” modern and traditional societies unite in regarding woman as less than normal human beings, as men who have not yet grown up to be mature human being (Zasha 2005).
Consequently to the above perception, women have been subjected to various inequalities; marginalization and exposure to different forces of in-inimitabilities, such among others include women’s rights, women education, women politics, widow hood, the strip of their fundamental rights. These put together have raised the gender questions.
The word gender means different things to different people. According to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (6th edition) gender means the fact of being mal or female. Gender roles have stirred up a lot of issues in the imagination of people in the society. Gender is a concept used in describing the differences resulting from differences in sex. The discrimination between men and women is essentially a social division BECAUSE of the thought that we have of men and women which are largely, socially constructed.
There are now two differences between men and women. These differences are sex in biological difference between men and women. That is being born male or female. However, gender is the expectation a society has formed about someone simply because the person is a man or a woman.
This project work shall be focusing on the gender roles ad their biases that are the expectation a society has formed about someone simply because the person is a man or a woman. The biases and relationships of gender roles in education shall also be considered.
Ukan local government was created out of Katsina-Ala, local government in 1991 by the General Ibrahim Babangida administration among others in Benue state. The local government is bounded in the north by Wukari local government of Taraba state, in the east by Takum local government of Taraba state in the west by Logo local government of Benue state and in the south by Katsina-Ala local government of Benue state.
The local government derived her name from their greatest grandfather “Ukum” which has two block sons Ucha and Ingenev whom they later gave birth to thirteen prominent sons which now constitutes the thirteen wards of Ukum local government, which include:
1. Azendeshi, 2. Aterayange, 3. Tyuluv, 4. Kendev 5. Lumbur 6. Uym 7. Ugbaam 8. Borikyo 9. Mbatian 10. Tsaav 11. Ngyenev 12. Mbazum 13. Mbayange.
The local government has a vast experience of fertile land for agricultural urposes. In fact Ukum is the local gove4rnment that has given Benue state the name “FOOD BASKET OF THE NATION”. Various food products like groundnuts, corn, millet, rice, yam, cassa a potatoes, etc. to mention but a few are cultivated for both domestic and foreign uses.
River Afia privides good economic opportunities for fishing and irrigational farming of fruits and vegetables. It also has salt in large quantities that is yet to be taped.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
There are a lot of biases about gender roles especially in the choice of career. Many people still seem to think that certain careers are exclusively the reserves of a particular gender. The gender affects career development in numerous ways, as a result of social organization because employment opportunities are affected by sex.
Women have been discriminated against in various ways which include assault and battery of women, genital mutilation, widow hood, practices of rites etc. and ever discrimination is more disheartening.
Also the problem of discrimination against women in education and the high illiteracy rate among Nigerian women is a consequence of inter play of several factors, including social and cultural discrimination. Sex stereotyping and forced to early marriage as a result of home background, misunderstanding of religion as well as social community sanctions. Therefore, we shall be testing the following hypotheses.
1.3. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The study will test the following hypothesis (the hypothesis will be tested at 5% level of significance).
Male and females do not differ significantly in their roles at home.
Men and women and do not differ significantly in their future careers.
Men and women do not differ significantly in giving equal rrights to education.
Thus this study is expected to show that there is no significant co-relation between the male and female.
1.4. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to see the influence of gender roles and biases in education specific objectives of the study include:
i. To correct the impression of parents encouraging unequal educational opportunities to both the male and females.
ii. Encouragement to the women to be more professionally committed by giving them their due rights in placement where they are qualified.
iii. The introduction of a new perspective in our value system whereby we have cause to recognize certain activities as gender specific.
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will unveil the biases that exist between people of different classes, races, religion and even sex. These biases and differences are partly natural and partly cultural conditioned. All culture have defined approved ways in which, men and female are expected to behave.
There are certain personalities, characteristics, works, task, and activities that are considered appropriate for males and females.
The idea of gender inequality roles and biases in education needs to be cleansed out our environment. A study of this nature is therefore of outmost significant to both government institutions and the public.
The study will help to solve this outstanding problem and should also serve vas a source of information for related studies in the future.
1.6. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the influence of gender roles and biases in education. The scope of this study is limited to the gender roles, equality, education and participation in economic development towards the development of Nigeria.
The extent of the study is limited by the following factors.
To obtain adequate result of the problem facing gender roles and biases in the educational development of Nigerian with Ukum local government, not all places were been listed and this posed a limitation in obtaining the representative sample in the study area.
Research work needs adequate time for fat finding. The time frame given for this study limits the extent to which the study was conducted.
This research work relies heavily on published data from both internet and relevant educational materials. The implication of conducting a research of this nature posses a serious limitation on the extent of this study.
The researcher however, intends to minimize these variable time, by harmonizing use of every data obtained from various educational materials and by minimizing the cost involved in the conduct of the study.
1.7. DEFINITION OF TERMS
GENDER: Differences in sex
BIASES: giving favour to one side
DISCRIMINATION: showing differences between two things
INTRPLAY: common action
MINIMIZE: bring to the lowest level
CAREER: progress through life
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