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ANALYSIS OF STREAM WATER

ABSTRACT

The bacteriological quality of five (5) streams in Enugu urban metropolis was assessed. The membrane filtration method was used to estimate the total coliform and Heterotrophic bacterial count of the stream waters. The coliform count of the stream ranged between 6 and 10 cfu/100ml; while the total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged between 34 and 59 cfu/100ml. Escherichia coli was isolated from three (3) streams out of the five (5) samples analyzed. The bacterial isolated from the samples include Escherichia coli, Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Erwinia sp. and Serriatia sp. The research work has indicated that streams in Enugu urban metropolis were found to be unfit for human consumption since none of the water samples, satisfied the Nigeria Industrial Standard (NIS) for drinking water quality and the coliform count were not within the recommended limits for portable water as given by World Health Organization (WHO).


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page - - - - - - - - i

Certification - - - - - - - - ii

Dedication - - - - - - - - iii

Acknowledgment - - - - - - iv

Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi

Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii

List of Tables - - - - - - - viii

List of figures - - - - - - - - ix

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction - - - - - - - - 1

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review - - - - -- - 6

2.1 Sources of Drinking Water - - - - 10

2.2 Contamination of Water - - - - - 18

2.3 Indicator of Faecal contamination - - - 19

2.4 Microbiological Method - - - - - 21

2.5 Prevention of faecal waste - - - - 24

2.6 Water treatment / purification - - - - 25

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and Method - - - - - 29

3.1 Study area and sampling - - - - - 29

3.2 Collecting of sample - - - - - - 30

3.3 Sterilization of material and aseptic technique - 32

3.4 Membrane filter technique - - - - 32

3.5 Identification of Isolates - - - - - 33

3.6 Estimation of total Bacteria count - - - 33

3.6 Presumptive Coliform counts - - - - 34

3.7 Faecal coliform counts- - - - - - 34

3.8 Pure culture isolation - - - - - 35

3.9 Bacterial Identification of isolate - - - 35

3.10 Biochemical Test - - - - - - 37

CHAPTER FOUR

Result - - - - - - - - - 46

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation - 52

5.1 Discussion - - - - - - - - 52

5.2 Conclusion and Recommendation- - - 54

Reference - - - - - - - - - 56

Appendix I - - - - - - - - 63

Appendix II - - - - - - - - 64


LISTS OF TABLES

Table Description Page

1 Some pathogenic microorganisms found in stream water 32 2 Sources and number of water sample collected

31 3 Heterotrophic bacterial and coliform count of the water samples 47 4 Bacterial isolated from each of the water source 5 Summary of the bacteriological quality of the five (5) streams 6 Physiochemical properties of the bacteria isolated

LIST OF FIGURES

Figures Descriptions Page 1 Histogram representing the percentage (%) of total coliform bacterial contamination of streams in Enugu urban metropolis


CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Water is a basic necessity of life and many diseases can easily be transmitted through it. It is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all life (Hayakawa et aI, 2000).

_Water is the most abundant commodity in nature, yet, it is one of the scarce commodities for man. It occupies about 70% of the earth’s surface (Orji et al, 2006). In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, a gaseous state, water vapour or steam (Hayakawa et al, 2005). Water on earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration (evapo-transpiration), precipitation and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land (Hayakawa et al, 2005).

Natural water are grouped into three (3) major groups and they are; Atmospheric water, Surface water and underground water. The availability of each source depends on the geographical location. Rain water is pure as it falls but may pick up impurities from the atmosphere.


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