Departments CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT OF CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) LEVEL IN ENUGU METROPOLIS MONITORING INDUSTRIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AREA

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ASSESSMENT OF CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) LEVEL IN ENUGU METROPOLIS MONITORING INDUSTRIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AREA
ASSESSMENT OF CARBON MONOXIDE CO LEVEL IN ENUGU METROPOLIS MONITORING INDUSTRIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AREA

ABSTRACT

Air pollutions pollutant showed that the extent of spreading depends on the motor vehicle traffic population of the area. This pollution strongly generated through combustion of fossil fuels presents difficult environmental challenge to societies as it could degrade the environment and affect human health and quality of life. Vehicular emissions are major contributors to air pollution in urban areas as they contain harmful gases. The levels of carbon monoxide has been investigated in two locations of Enugu metropolis high traffic old park and low traffic caritas university, in order to determine its pollution status with regards to air. ELUSBCO analyzer used for the analysis indicated variations in the levels of CO for the period of study. The results obtained revealed that the concentrations of CO in high traffic HT area is higher than that of low traffic LT and is unacceptable compared with the Federal Environmental Protection agency FEPA Nigeria set limit. The dispersion pattern of the suggests that vehicular emission contributes to the levels of carbon monoxide in the environment

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Air pollution is associated with increasing cases of many adverse health effects, e.g. mortality, respiratory diseases and cancer. The chemical composition of ambient air is very complex and depends on many different factors, traffic generated air pollution being a major source in large cities. This is especially true in the developing world, mainly due to the high proportion of old, poorly maintained vehicles, the abundance of two stroke vehicles and the poor fuel quality Baumbach et al., 1995; Gwilliam 2003. All these factors contribute to one of the major air pollutant in urban areas; carbon monoxide CO.

CO is a poisonous, colorless, inevitable gas that has neither taste nor smell. It is formed when carbon burns with too little air incomplete combustion Smith and Scott, 2002. Carbon monoxide CO, also called Carbonious oxide or Carbon II Oxide and is slightly lighter than air. CO is a deadly, colorless, odorless, poisonous gas, produced by the incomplete burning of various fuels, including coal, wood, charcoal, oil, kerosene, propane, and natural gas. Products and equipments and machines powered by internal combustion engines such as portable generators, cars, lawn mowers, and power washers also produce CO. It has a high affinity for hemoglobin in blood and displaces O2 to form carboxyl hemoglobin COHb. This can cause dizziness, headaches and eventually death. Tobacco smoke, gas fires, burning candles are also common sources of CO in indoor air. Internal combustion engines are responsible for most of the CO in outdoor air Smith and Scott, 2002. The ambient concentration of CO is measured in parts per million ppm. Most of the studies on air pollution and exposure to air pollutants have been conducted in developed countries, i.e. Western Europe and the USA ivi and Fuga, 1987, Cernuschi et. al., 1998; and Chiara et. al., 2005. There is limited information on exposure to air pollutants in developing tropical countries, but some studies have been carried out in subSaharan Africa Baumbach et. al., 1995; Fanou et. al., 2005; Lindn e.t al., 2007.

1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The world is presently confronted with the twin crises of environmental degradation and fossil fuel depletion. The uncontrolled use and overexploitation of our natural resources have also triggered other environmental issues, which hitherto were nonexistent. Some of these environmental issues include global warming climate change and air pollution. The aforementioned have been shown to have very serious health implications. Presently, fossil fuel powered engines are noted to account for over sixty percent of the hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide pollution which have very serious environmental and health implications, especially in our urban areas and their surrounding communities. It is thus very timely and pertinent within the Enugu city due to the growing use of automobiles and diesel powered generators within the city.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

1.2.1 Aim:

The aim of this project is to monitor CO levels within Enugu city using two cities as our basis.

1.2.2 Objectives:

i. Identify possible hotspots for generation of CO gas within the city.

ii. Determine the distribution of CO gas within high traffic and low traffic areas of the city.

iii. Determine the daily differences in the various sample stations.

1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

HO: There is a significant difference between the carbon monoxide levels within high traffic areas and low traffic areas.

1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of this project covers studies of CO concentrations and distribution within Enugu city comprising of such districts as Old Park high traffic and Caritas University low traffic. The project will examine the distribution of air pollution situation within these areas of the city. Data will be collected and analyzed for its relevance to the question of how CO disperses in the environment. To this end, two stations are chosen, one a high traffic Old Park and a low traffic area that is primarily residential and have low traffic flow Caritas University. The essence of choosing these stations is to give a general overview of what the air quality is like within the city, with one station showing the residential profile while the other shows the commercial profile. The study will focus on only Carbon Monoxide CO gas. The gas will be measured for a nine hour period for one week at a five minutes interval using carbon monoxide sensors.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study helps in the understanding and also the monitoring of carbon monoxide in Enugu metropolis and this will help in knowing the level of carbon monoxide being emitted in this area.

This study will also help in minimizing the level of carbon monoxide in the environment and also provide a means of solving the problems since motor bikes and vehicles serves as the case study and the major contributor of carbonmonoxide in outdoor activities.


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